Application Support for Apple Macs, Laptops and Computers

Glossary - Application & Network Terms + Definitions

Access Control

Access Control ensures that resources are only granted to those users who are entitled to them.


Adware means "advertising-supported software" and also known as grayware.

These software or application show pop-up and by themselves, are not inherently malicious but annoying. Adware is normally bundled with malware that facilitate connection to malicious websites and spyware to target users as seen in free apps for cybercriminals revenues.


Authentication is the process of confirming the correctness of the user or system identity.


Authorization is giving to granted approval to do or execute specific system or user activities based on assigned privilidges.


Availability is the degree to which a system must be accessible to meet business needs irrespective of prevailing conditions. Availability normally includes some degree of tolerance with respect to alowed downtime or agreed outage periods that is considered acceptable.


A backdoor is an unauthorised tool that has been installed on a syste after a compromise, thereby allowing  an attacker gain easily access to the system in the future without being detected by security mechanisms that are in place.


Generally refers to the allocated capacity of a communication channel to pass data within a given amount of time. Bandwidth is normally expressed as bits per second (bps), Kbps, Mpbs...etc.


Botnet means "Bot Network" and represents a group of hijacked computers that are controlled remotely by a hacker. Botnets are used to send spam emails and/or launch Denial of Service attacks by cybercriminals.


The cache is a temporary storage space on a computer hard drive for web browser to save copies of previously visited Web pages.


An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user's computer by the user's web browser while the user isbrowsing

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)

CRC refers to cyclic redundancy code and is a type of checksum algorithm used for ensuring data integrity on systems where accidental or deliberate file changes are possible.


Debugging is the process of identifing and resolving defects that prevent computer software or normal system operations.


Decryption is the process of converting secure files or messages into their original format - such as plain text.

Defense In-Depth

In-Depth is a system security principle comprising multiple layers of security measures and tools to enforce authorization and protect against single point security failures.

Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)

DMZ is often referred to as the perimeter network and comprises physical or logical subnetwork desighned to expose externally facing services to an untrusted network - like the internet.

DMZ is generally used to host web servers and some application servers which need to communicate across the internet.

Denial of Service

Prevention of authorized access to a system resource or the delaying system operations and functions for malicious benefits.


Encryption is the process of converting information or data into a code, with primary purpose of preventing unauthorized access.


Ethernet is a standardised system for connecting computer systems to create local area network. Ethernet uses a well defined protocols to control informaation flow and possible system conflicts.


A firewall is a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. Firewalls can be implemented as hardware or software - or combination of both - within network systems.


Firmware refers to software program or set of coded instructions programmed within a device hardware to execute specific function(s).


A network point that acts as the ultimateaccess control for data access for another network


GPU stands for "Graphics Processing Unit" and is primarily used for computing 3D functions within a computer or system.



HDMI means "High-Definition Multimedia Interface" and refers to a digital interface for transferring audio and video data via a single cable.


Host refers to any computer with full two-way access capabilities ord communicate with other computers on the Internet. Web servers are typical examples of hosts because they can serves the pages to one or more website or clients.




IMAP means "Internet Message Access Protocol" and is a method of accessing a copy of email message on a server without downloading the only instance. IMAP is frequently used on mobile devices and easily enable message status consistentency.

IP Address

a unique string of numbers separated by full stops that identifies each computer using the Internet Protocol to communicate over a network.

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